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What is a cataract?

A cataract is a clouding of the normally clear lens of the eye. If you have cataracts the lens becomes cloudy like the bottom lens in the illustration.It is like looking through the foggy or dusty car windshield. Things look blurry, hazy or less colorful in the cataract. Most cataracts develop slowly and don’t disturb your eyesight early on. But with time it affects your vision. The person who has a cataract has to face difficulty in reading, driving and recognizing the facial expression of the person standing in front of him.Cataracts can be removed only through cataract surgery in which the natural lens of the eye is replaced by an artificial lens.
In this article, you will know all about cataracts, their symptoms, their causes and the procedure of cataract eye surgery.

Symptoms of cataract

Signs and symptoms of cataracts are listed below.
• Blurry, cloudy and dim vision.
• Seeing halos around the light
• Fading or yellowing colour
• Double vision in a single eye
• Frequent changes in eyeglass or lenses prescribed
• Sensitive to light and glare
• Difficulty in reading and other activities, especially at night
• Increasing difficulty in vision at night
• Need for brighter light to read at night

Causes of Cataract

Here are some factors that lead to cataracts. These factors are given below.
• Aging is the most common factor that leads to cataracts. This is due to common eye changes that start after the age of 40.
• Breaking down of normal protein in the lens causes the lens to get cloudy.
• It can be genetic means it can transfer from your parents to your brother, sister and you.
• Having medical problems like diabetes and high blood pressure.
• Bad habits like smoking or drinking.
• In case of eye injury, eye surgery or radiation treatment is done on the upper part of the body.
• Having spent a lot of time in the sun, especially without sunglasses. With the time, the cataract increases.
• To get rid of a cataract you need to get cataract eye surgery. In the further article, you will know about cataract eye surgery.

Cataract eye surgery

Cataract surgery is performed to treat cataracts. During cataract surgery, the cloudy lens is removed and a new artificial lens is implanted in your eye. Your eye is like a camera, has a lens for focusing light. This lens is naturally clear. When this lens turns cloudy and your eye can’t focus light, it’s called a cataract. In some cases, cataract is removed without implanting an artificial lens. This surgery is quick and painless. More than 50% of people over 80 have cataract and have had cataract surgery. About 90% of people have a successful surgery and got complete improvement in vision. It takes up to eight weeks for complete recovery.

Benefits of cataract eye surgery

Some benefits of cataract surgery are listed below:-
• Quick procedure
• Simple recovery
• Improve vision
• Better quality of life
• Protect your eye health
• painless

The procedure of cataract surgery

You have to be awake for the surgery the ophthalmologist will numb your eye with medicines so that you could not feel any pain. This surgery takes an hour. First of all the surgeon will make a tiny cut in front of your eye, sometimes with the help of a laser. Through this, they will put in a small tool to break up the cataract and gently suction it out. Next, they will put a new artificial lens which is made of plastic, silicon or acrylic and close the cut.

Side effects of cataracts surgery

The side effects of cataract surgery are rare. But these things can take place after the surgery
1. Infection or swelling in the eye
2. Retinal detachment: - the breaking away of the layer of tissues at the back side of your eye that senses light.
3. Bleeding
4. Drooping eyelid
5. The temporary rise in eye pressure after 12-24 hours of the surgery.

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